William Macias.

Jessica L. Mega, M.D., M.P.H., Sandra L. Close, Ph.D., Stephen D. Wiviott, M.D., Lei Shen, Ph.D., Richard D. Hockett, M.D., John T. Brandt, M.D., Joseph R. Walker, Pharm.D., Elliott M. Antman, M.D., William Macias, M.D., Ph.D., Eugene Braunwald, M.D., and Marc S. Sabatine, M.D., M.P.H.: Cytochrome P-450 Polymorphisms and Response to Clopidogrel Across the spectral range of acute coronary syndromes and in sufferers undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions with stenting, dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin, a thienopyridine inhibitor of the platelet P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor, is the standard of care.1-3 However, the pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel has considerable interpatient variability,4-6 and patients with coronary disease with lesser degrees of platelet inhibition in response to clopidogrel appear to be in increased risk for cardiovascular occasions.7-10 Clopidogrel is a prodrug that will require biotransformation to a dynamic metabolite by cytochrome P-450 enzymes .11,12 Moreover, esterases shunt nearly all clopidogrel to an inactive pathway, with the remaining prodrug requiring two split CYP-dependent oxidative actions.Plus they can be transplanted in to the body to regenerate cells, such as for example pancreatic cells for diabetics. While there are other methods out there to make microtissues, our 3-D technology is fast, inexpensive and easy. It can make thousands of microtissues in one step. Studies also show dramatic differences in the form sometimes, growth and function patterns of cells cultured in 2-D weighed against cells cultured in 3-D.